# Learning Outcomes

• Be able to create a basic class
• Interact with a class object
• Understand the utility of classes
• An idea of good and bad class usage
• Be able to create modular code
• Import from modular code

# Classes

Without necessarily knowing it you have been itnertacting with classes during this entire tutorial. That be said what is a class?


class Dog:
"""
Creates a Dog. Note that you will normally not document __init__ but instead
put then documentation under the class definition

Args:
name: The dogs name
color: give a color
speed: Give the top speed in mph. Must be >= 0
weight: Give the weight in kg. Must be >= 0

Example:
>>> Dog('rover', 'brown', 10, 50)
"""
def __init__(self, name, color, max_speed, weight):
self.name = name
self.color = color
self.max_speed = max_speed
self.weight = weight

if max_speed <= 0:
raise ValueError('Cannot have max_speed <= 0')
if weight <= 0:
raise ValueError('Cannot have weight <= 0')

def noise(self):
"""
Makes the noise of a dog

Example:
>>> Dog('ronald', 'green', 10, 50).noise()
'woof'
"""
return 'woof'


A class is an abstraction of the logic that defines something. In this instance ‘something’ is a Dog - or rather a pretty basic dog. Currently all our dog can do is Woof!

The __init__ method is used to define what arguments a class can take at it’s creation. We can similarly define a class like

class DogBase:

def noise(self):
return 'woof'


Style Tip Always define classes in ThisFormatOfText

but the we cannot specify any defining characteristics about DogBase so it kind of loses it’s individual charm - there are cases where DogBase would be increadibly useful but we won’t touch on those at this level.

## What is self in a class

Functions within classes are known as class methods. This new namenclature kind of gives us a hint at a few things…

I can define a function outside of the class which doesn’t overwrite the function inside the class

>>> def noise()
...     return 'roar'
>>> Dog('ronald', 'purple', 10, 50).noise()
'woof'


### Why is it called self?

Secondly, notice that all my class methods contain the variable name self as the first argument whereas my function did not have this requirement.

self is actually not required to be called self. In fact I could call it any name. It’s the same as using m for mass in Newton’s law F = m * a. I could easily replace Newton’s law with g = p * j and state that g is force, p is mass and j is acceleration.

The reason we use self is because it’s refers to the class object itself

### What does self do?

Lets create an instance of Dog

>>> rover = Dog('rover', 'brown', 15, 50)


When we call

>>> rover.noise()


what happens internally is actually

>>> Dog.noise(rover)


thus self becomes rover!

## Interacting with class attributes

Anything that is assigned to self becomes an attribute that we can interact with. This is another very useful property of a class: For storing intermediate results.

class Demo:
"""
A demo taking in 3 integers, x, y, z

Example:
>>> d = Demo(1, 2, 3)
>>> (d.x == 1) & (d.y == 2) & (d.z == 3)
True
"""
def __init__(self, x, y, z):
self.x = x
self.y = y
self.z = z

def method(self, a, b):
"""
Calculates (x^y + z) * a * b

Example:
>>> x, y, z, a, b = 1, 5, 76, 89, 2
>>> d = Demo(x, y, z)
>>> d.method(a, b) - (x**y + z) * a * b  < 1e-6
True

We can also extract the temporary reuslt afterwards
>>> d.tmp - (x**y + z) < 1e-6
True

and we also stored the result
>>> d.res - (x**y + z) * a * b  < 1e-6
True
"""
self.tmp = self.x**self.y + self.z
self.res = self.tmp * a * b
return self.res


Testing Tip As a side note I actually got the variable names on this really simple function wrong several times simply because I decided to rename them all! THe doctests saved me actually putting up incorrect code.

## When to use Classes

This is all great but you don’t work in a Game Studio. This is geared towards banking so why do we care about Dogs?! We don’t, so lets start looking at trading strategies.

Just as a heasd up: This has no relation to how Nomura QIS calculate momentum. This is just a simple demonstration to how we would want to utilise classes for signals

The best way to start is normally with functions or single lines of code. As you become comfortable with components move then into functions.

Consider a simple momentum trading strategy: Simply define the momentum signal as the average of the sign of the return the n previous days

import numpy as np

def momentum_signal(s):
"""
A simple momentum signal

Args:
s: A numpy array of some underlying instrument price

Example:
We expect the returns to be calculated like

>>> import numpy as np
>>> s = np.array([1. , 1.5, 1. , 1.5])
>>> rets_expected = np.array([1.5/1-1, 1/1.5-1, 1.5/1-1])

Then we take the sign of these returns which gives

>>> np.sign(rets_expected)
array([ 1., -1.,  1.])

Finally we average the sign like
>>> expected = np.sign(rets_expected).sum() / 3.

and we can compare against our function using np.allclose
because sometimes the values may vary ever so slightly due to machine
precision

>>> result = momentum_signal(s)
>>> np.allclose(result, expected)
True
"""
if not isinstance(s, np.ndarray):
s = np.array(s)         # we need it to be a numpy array for efficiency
rets = s[1:] / s[:-1] - 1   # See exercise 11.2 to understand this
return np.sign(rets).mean()


This function is pretty generic bcause it will just give the signal on whatever prices you send into it. However, you need logic to take the last n prices from a larger timeseries and may want to do this in a rolling process so as to create a backtest.

These two conditions generate the need for a class

### When to avoid classes

As a beginner classes will almost always make debugging more complicated if you dive into them head first.

Remember that abstraction is a tool: You should only use tools if they make your work more productive.

An analogy is laying a drainage ditch in your back garden. An automated drainage ditcher is clearly far more adept at this task. By the time you source one and finally figure out how it works you could have already been at the pub. Also in using this new tool, it’s likely that you may misconfigure it and have a lot of issues as a result! Pick the right tool for the right job!

I regularly see code from beginners that will define a single class in a module that will never change in its parameterisation and will only ever be called once with functions that do indepedent tasks.

However, just because they functions were all for the specific task they may have wrote a class like

from yourfirms_quantlib import core

"""
The report I was asked to automate yesterday for that client

Args:

Example:
>>> report = TradeThingyForReportX([432346, 3546457, 345324])
[432346, 3546457, 345324]
"""

Example:
>>> report = TradeThingyForReportX([432346, 3546457, 345324])
2389456.34
"""

def rebuild_forward_curves_with_new_data(self, new_data):

Args:
new_data: A list of some kind of new params for the trades

Example:
>>> report = TradeThingyForReportX([432346, 3546457, 345324])
>>> report.rebuild_forward_curves_with_new_data([{'start_date': 1}])

Lets assume we can check in the core quantlib if they are mutated
[1, 1, 1]
"""
# ...
# some manipulation to reformat new_data
# ...

# assume this changes the IDs in memory during this python session
# althought this would probabaly be a terrible idea in reality!

def get_present_value_with_new_data(new_data):
"""
Gets the PV for a report X with some scenario modifications

Args:
new_data: A list of some kind of new params for the trades

Example:
Lets assume our new_data allows us to bump parameters then

>>> report = TradeThingyForReportX([432346, 3546457, 345324])
>>> report.get_present_value_with_new_data([{'start_date': 1}])
92309.6
"""
self.rebuild_forward_curves_with_new_data(new_data)


Given that this report will never be used outside of this junior’s function: I would say that this is a bad example of writing a class.

Instead I would write the above example as below which results in far less complexity and less code

from yourfirms_quantlib import core

Args:
new_data: A list of some kind of new params for the trades

Example:
>>> rebuild_forward_curves_with_new_data([7878676], [{'end_date': -1}])

Lets assume we can check in the core quantlib if they are mutated
[-1]
"""
# ...
# some manipulation to reformat new_data
# ...

# assume this changes the IDs in memory during this python session
# althought this would probabaly be a terrible idea in reality!

"""
Gets the PV for a report X with some scenario modifications

Args:
new_data: A list of some kind of new params for the trades

Example:
Lets assume our new_data allows us to bump parameters then

>>> pv_for_report_x([432346, 3546457, 345324], [{'start_date': 1}])
92309.6
"""


### When to move into a class

In my opinion there are two good reasonas to use classes in python

1. You want to create many parameterisations of the same underlying logic (e.g. The Dog example)
2. You have many functions that are constantly passing around the same objects

### A class for our backtesting

Lets create an engine that can give us the signal at any given historic timepoint for our momentum strategy

#### Use pandas for timeseries analysis!

Doing timeseries analysis without using pandas is asking for trouble unless you’re an advanced programmer.

This is because pandas contains an index which travels with the arrays that prevents you tying youeslf in knots. A single bad index can and will totally breakdown any systemmatic signal.

Therefore let us start the creation of our strategy using a pandas Series (a pd.Series is just a single column of a pd.DataFrame) check this by creating df = pd.DataFrame({'a': [5, 6, 10]}) and selecting the column 'a' like df['a']

#### Writing the base logic

The following incorporates the basic framework in which we want to operate

class SimpleMom:
"""
A simple momentum strategy

Args:
ts: The prices as a pandas DataFrame
lookback: How many previous days we wish to create a signal from
"""
def __init__(self, prices, lookback):
if not isinstance(prices, pd.Series):
raise ValueError('prices must be a pandas Series because we only want one column!')

self.prices = pd.DataFrame(prices)
self.lookback = lookback


Now lets add the signals in! This time we want to actually get the signal for a specific historical time point so we need some kind of reference to the time in the dataframe index

class SimpleMom:
"""
A simple momentum strategy

Args:
ts: The prices as a pandas DataFrame
lookback: How many previous days we wish to create a signal from

Example:
>>> import pandas as pd
>>> prices = pd.Series([1. , 1.5, 1. , 1.5, 3.0])
>>> sm = SimpleMom(prices, 3)
"""
def __init__(self, prices, lookback):
if not isinstance(prices, pd.Series):
raise ValueError('prices must be a pandas Series because we only want one column!')

self.prices = prices
self.lookback = lookback

def signal(self, t):
"""
Gives the signal that we can observe at time t

Example:
>>> sig = SimpleMom(pd.Series([1. , 1.5, 1. , 1.5, 4.0]), 3).signal(3)
>>> np.allclose(1/3., sig)
True
"""
# this gives us all the prices up to but not including t
# which is what we want because we can't observe the price at t
# Think about EOD prices as an example... We can't see EOD for t
# when are in day t
prices_lookback = self.prices.loc[t - self.lookback: t]
return momentum_signal(prices_lookback)


# Modular Python

At this stage I would strongly recommend turning on autoreload in ipython which can be done like

In [0]: %load_ext autoreload



This will allow your code to autoreload the changes as you edit them!

## Example: Create a basic module

Create python files with the terminal in new directory called nnet the same directory like

./nnet/
__init__.py
core.py


This module will contain the generic mathematical building blocks required for a neural network. Our main module model.py will bring all of these components together to make a model.

Inside core.py put the following contents.

import numpy as np

def sigmoid(x):
"""
The sigmoid function

Example:

This example shows how you can skip doctests
on certain examples e.g. plots that are purely for
demonstration and won't result in testable results

>>> from nnet import core
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt  # doctest: skip
>>> x = np.linspace(-10, 10, 100)    # doctest: skip
>>> plt.plot(x, core.sigmoid(x))     # doctest: skip
>>> plt.show()                       # doctest: skip
"""
return 1 / (1 + np.exp(-x))

def forward_prop(x, w, b):
"""
Forwards propagation

Example:
>>> import numpy as np
>>> from nnet import core
>>> x = np.array([[0],   # demonstrate that x is a column array
...               [1]])  # so has shape of (2, 1) - (rows, columns)
>>> w = np.array([[.5, .5],
...               [.5, .5]])
>>> b = np.array([[1], [1]])  # b is also a column array but on one line
>>> core.forward_prop(x, w, b)
array([[1.5],
[1.5]])
"""
# note that you can chain logic like below in python!
if not (x.shape[0] == b.shape[0] == w.shape[-1]):
raise ValueError('You have w, x, b wrong way round! '
f'Shapes: x: {x.shape}, w: {x.shape}, b: {b.shape}')
return sigmoid(np.dot(w, x) + b)


__init__.py should be a blank file with no contents.

## Example: Importing a Module

Now cd in ipython or the terminal so that nnet is a subdirectory. You will now be able to import the nnet module and use core.sigmoid as shown in the documentation example!

If you want to be able to import like

>>> import nnet
>>> nnet.core.sigmoid(1)
0.5


you will also need to alter the __init__.py to the following

from . import core


## Example: Referencing other local modules

Create a new file model.py so that your directory looks like

./nnet/
__init__.py
core.py
model.py


Inside model.py put the following

import numpy as np

from . import core

def predict(x, w0, w1, b0, b1):
"""
Returns the prediction of a neural network
using specified weights and bias

Example:
>>> import numpy as np
>>> from nnet import model
>>> x0, x1 = 1, 0
>>> x = np.array([[x0], [x1]])
>>> w0 = np.array([[.5, .5], [.5, .5]])
>>> w1 = np.array([[.5, .5], [.5, .5]])
>>> b0 = np.array([[.25], [.25]])
>>> b1 = np.array([[1], [1]])
>>> model.predict(x, w0, w1, b0, b1).round(3)  # rounding avoids floating point issues
array([[0.843],
[0.843]])
"""
assert all((isinstance(o, np.ndarray) for o in (x, w0, w1, b0, b1)))
layer1 = core.forward_prop(x, w0, b0)
return core.forward_prop(layer1, w1, b1)


Style Tip Leave to blank lines after imports. Leave one blank line between libraries installed by default (import numpy as np at the top) and your own created modules (from . import core below)

You will now similarly be able to import and call predict as in the example if your present working directory has nnet as a subdirectory.

You can check your present working directory by typing pwd into ipython and check to see if nnet is a subdirectory by doing ls nnet either in ipython or the terminal

As an aside it should be slightly clearly why my bias for ipython is so strong

## Aside: How Python installs libraries

You have effectively created a mini-library here on-the-fly. This is infact not too far off how libs are installed when you install a library in the terminal / powershell prompt like

\$ python -m pip install SomeLibrary


What actually happens under-the-hood is that a system environment variable namd PYTHONPATH (similar to PATH) contains a list of all directories that python expects a python module (like you have created) to sit within as a subdirectory. These directories then behave as if your ipython terminal had them as the present working directory all at the same time.

As a hack you can see this working by doing

>>> import sys
>>> sys.path.append('/directory/that/containsnnet')


Then even if you are not in the correct directory, you will still be able to import nnet. This can be quite useful during development. Just as a heads up - never put this in finished python modules as it is awefully hacky and a terrible idea in general!

# Exercises

## Exercise 11.1: Understand your self

Modify the noise so that the dog now speaks english. You should include these two doctests in the Examples and make sure you can pass them

I have started this off for you as below. Note that you will need to rewrite the class method in Dog with the below function so it will need to be indented and underneath the definition of Dog

def noise():
"""
Returns the noise of a fairly smart dog

Example:
>>> Dog('Rover', 'brown', 15, 50).noise()
'I am Rover the Dog. I am brown. Woof!'

>>> Dog('Sally', 'green', 15, 50).noise()
'I am Sally the Dog. I am green. Woof!'
"""
return

# Solve Me!


## Exercises 11.2: Fixing indexing errors

In the example where we create SimpleMom there is actually a major bug.

See what happens if you make the t smaller than the lookback: In otherwords see what happens if you try and get a signal where there aren’t enough historic prices available for the required lookback

To further elaborate: If you have 4 prices in total as your history, you want to calculate the signal at day 2 but with a lookback window of 4 days… what happens!?

Propose a fix to this!

# Solve Me!


# Next Topic

That’s it that’s all - Now go roam the wild ! At this stage you should be fairly proficient at beginner concepts. The best way to progress is to find a project idea to implement. Aim small with a very well defined success criteria. This is important because you want an end point at which you can determine you have succeeded and move on. It is also important to find something that you genuinely find interesting as a first project idea.

Migrating an Excel spreadsheet to python may seem useful but it is inantely boring as hell. How about controlling a toy drone? Scraping holiday websites for cheap deals? Silly fun ideas are by far the best ideas.

You are now truly a master of computers so go and have some realy fun!